Tools - Risk analysis tools

Alien species in aquiculture. considerations for responsible use. Hewitt C.L., Campbell M.L. & Gollasch S. 2006 IUCN, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK 32pp.

This publication aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue. The last section of this document provides some considerations and suggestions to be taken into account by decision makers and managers when using -or deciding on the use of- alien species for aquaculture purposes. The considerations put forward here bear in mind the challenges faced by decision makers when reconciling conservation and development needs, and aim to help them find pragmatic solutions to ensure a responsible use of alien species for aquaculture purposes, should they decide to go down that path.

An inventory and assessment of invasive alien plant species of Nepal

This inventory and assessment is based on experts’ consultation, literature and field studies in collaboration with local partners such as high schools, community forest user groups, community-based NGOs, farmers and other stakeholders.

Aquatic Animal Health Code

The OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code (the Aquatic Code) sets out standards for the improvement of aquatic animal health and welfare and veterinary public health worldwide, including through standards for safe international trade in aquatic animals (amphibians, crustaceans, fish and molluscs) and their products.

Assessing the risk of potentially invasive plant species in central Europe. Weber, E. & Gut, D., 2004: Journal for Nature Conservation 12 (2004) 171—179

A risk assessment system was developed to assess the invasion potential of new environmental weeds in central Europe. A pre-evaluation step excludes species that are officially controlled, widespread, or intended for use in protected cultures only. Species eligible for risk assessment are classified into three categories (high risk, further observation required, low risk) by rating them according to various biogeographical and ecological aspects.

Assessment and control of biological invasion risks

This collection of papers presented at the International Conference on Assessment and Control of Biological Invasion Risks held in August 2004 at Yokohama National University discusses risk assessment, risk management and eradication. It also includes contributions reporting on the current status of invasion and the properties of alien species in East Asia.

Australian Government. Department of Agriculture and Water Resources Biosecurity Risk Analysis

Including links to a variety of risk assessments including Animal Risk Analaysis, Plant Risk Analysis, Weed Risk Analysis, Biocontrol Risk Assessment

Bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia) management manual - Control options and management case studies fromacross Australia

This manual outlines the ecology and impacts of bellyache bush, discusses a range of control methods and provides planning tools to assist in weed control. The information presented is based on a review of published information and discussions with researchers, technical experts and weed managers. It also contains a number of case studies that give practical examples of how bellyache bush is being managed in different parts of northern Australia.

Best Practice for the Management of Introduced Marine Pests - A Review. Hilliard R. 2005. Publisher GISP

The desktop compilation and mini-review of existing information is required by GISP as the first step in its plan to produce a toolkit specifically for the prevention and management of invasive marine species. The scope and objectives of the initial step have been as follows: 1. Provide a compilation of all relevant literature and material available globally, rather than an in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of different approaches. 2. Cover all possible pathways/vectors of ‘invasive alien species’ (IAS) in the marine environment with a focus on actual rather than hypothetical cases, including intentional and unintentional introduction pathways, plus natural range expansions resulting from climate change and other human activities. 3. Include case studies demonstrating ecological, economic and social impacts (such as the Caulerpa taxifolia ‘aquarium strain’ in the Mediterranean and elsewhere), best practice manuals (e.g. the Rapid Response Toolbox in Australia’s National Introduced Marine Pest Information System), information on relevant technologies (especially new developments and voluntary guidelines such as the IMO guidelines on ballast water management), and recent regulations at sub-national, national and international levels (e.g. the New Zealand Biosecurity Act 1993). 4. Cover all aspects of IAS management, i.e. from prevention through early warning and surveillance systems, eradication, containment and monitoring, management and control. 5. Make the maximum possible use of web-searches and appropriate mailing lists within the time constraints of the study to provide the broadest possible coverage of reports, many of which are grey literature.

Best Practices in Pre-Import Risk Screening for Species of Live Animals in International Trade: Proceedings of an Expert Workshop on Preventing Biological Invasions, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA,

The present publication, the Proceedings of the aforementioned workshop, focuses on ‘best practices’ to address the risks associated with imports of live animals (and their parasites and pathogens) in international trade. Such species are imported primarily for the pet, aquarium/terrarium, aquaculture/mariculture, live bait, game farming, fur farming and live food industries, and include terrestrial, aquatic, vertebrate and invertebrate species. It is important to note that, non-native animals together with their parasites and pathogens, are introduced into countries both unintentionally and intentionally, but that the workshop focused on addressing the risks associated with intentional introductions of live animals. Simons, S.A. and De Poorter, M. (eds.) 2009. Best Practices in Pre-Import Risk Screening for Species of Live Animals in International Trade: Proceedings of an Expert Workshop on Preventing Biological Invasions, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, 9-11 April 2008. Global Invasive Species Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. 30pp.

Biofuels as Invasive Species. Witt, A., 2011. CABI Expert White Paper Series on Biofuels, September, 2011

This paper discusses the increasing use of biofuel production across the globe, and the invasive risks of biofuel species. The document includes a definition of biofuels and their economic status in the world, impacts of production, recommended policy approaches, and a list of species, categorised by family, which have been suggested as potential biofuel crops, but have also been recognised as invasive / potentially invasive.

California Invasive Plant Council

Cal-IPC maintains the California Invasive Plant Inventory, a comprehensive list of invasive plants based on ecological impacts, pursues improvement of invasive plant policy through advocacy events and grassroots organizing and presents

CBD - Experiences, Case Studies, and Assessments

Convention on Biological Diversity. This page provides access to sources of information on experiences with invasive alien species, including case studies and assessments. The list of sources is not meant to be comprehensive, but rather is intended to focus on some key sources that themselves contain a variety of information on experiences with invasive alien species

CBD - Guidance and Tools

Convention on Biological Diversity. This page provides links to some key tools and guidance related to invasive alien species, as well as to guidance documents that are specific to certain pathways.

CBD - Impact Assessment

Impact assessment is the process of identifying the future consequences of a current or proposed action. It is used to ensure that projects, programmes and policies are economically viable, socially equitable and environmentally sustainable. Work under the Convention seeks to support efforts to adequately reflect biodiversity considerations in impact assessments. Guidance developed under the Convention helps to decide which aspects of biodiversity may need to be monitored and how to carry this out in a cost-effective way.

CEFAS - Decision Support Tools for the identification and management of invasive non-native aquatic species

The pre-screening toolkits for identifying invasive non-native species that are available on this page are based on VisualBasic (VB) code from the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) toolkit (Pheloung et al. 1999). We are grateful to  P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams and S.R. Halloy for providing an open version of their original WRA toolkit, with permission to adapt the original code for the VB driven toolkits developed at Cefas.

These toolkits are Crown copyright but may be downloaded for free, and freely distributed provided this notice is retained: No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance.

Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) • Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (MFISK) • Marine Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit (MI-ISK) • Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FI-ISK) • Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit (AmphISK)

Codes of practice and manual of procedures for consideration of introductions and transfers of marine and freshwater organisms. Turner, G.E. 1988. EIFAC/CECPI Occasional paper No. 23 44 p.

This report was prepared by the “Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms” of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea and by the “Working Party on Introductions” of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission.

Consignments in Transit (IPPC)

The standard describes procedures to identify, assess and manage phytosanitary risks associated with consignments of regulated articles which pass through a country without being imported, in such a manner that any phytosanitary measures applied in the country of transit are techinically justified and necessary to prevent the introduction into and/or spread of pests within that country.

Denying entry : opportunities to build capacity to prevent the introduction of invasive species and improve biosecurity at US ports

A recognized gap in the US government’s knowledge of the role that trade has played in the introduction of invasive species into the US led to a study undertaken by the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of International Affairs and IUCN. The aim was to identify the resources, strategies, and policies necessary to create, maintain, and make accessible one or more commodity/invasive species databases that EPA and other relevant agencies can apply to trade policy decision-making in a timely and scientifically-based manner.

Directrices para la evaluación de la condición jurídica y social nacional del agua de lastre

Guidelines for national ballast water status : assessment.  French-language version

EPPO - Completed risk analyses

The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) has a priority to prevent the introduction of dangerous pests (bacteria, fungi, insects, plants, viruses…) from other parts of the world, and to limit their spread within the region should they be introduced. In recent years, trade networks have expanded and diversified, increasing the risks of introducing pests to new geographical areas. Measures adopted by countries to protect their territories from these introductions should be technically justified and an International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) on Pest Risk Analysis (ISPM no. 11) has been developed in the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) framework. The page lists analyses that have been done and provides tools for analysis. There are useful databases and links at the foot of the page.

EPPO - Pest Risk Analysis

Acoop-it page gathering information on risk assessment and risk management performed to protect plant health in the EPPO region and worldwide. Also sharing information on PRA methodology (e.g. climate mapping, PRA schemes, evaluation of impact).

EPPO - PQR Database

PQR is the EPPO database on quarantine pests. As decided by the EPPO Executive Committee in April 2007, it can be downloaded free of charge from this web page. For each pest, it is possible to obtain lists of host plants, commodities able to act as pathways in international trade, details of geographical distribution with maps, and pictures. Conversely, it is also possible to interrogate the database to obtain specific lists of pests, by stipulating the host species, the commodity, and the countries of interest. PQR contains general nomenclatural and taxonomic details on pests and hosts.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) Pest Risk Analysis

This page provides Risk Analysis standards, including the EPPO Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests (available in English and French and as a computerized version), the EPPO Decision-support scheme for express Pest Risk Assessment (PRA) and the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants. Completed Risk Analyses are available href="">Here; Here)

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO)

EPPO is an intergovernmental organization created in 1951 which currently has 50 member countries. EPPO is responsible for harmonization and cooperation among the National Plant Protection Organizations (official authorities) of its member countries. EPPO helps its members in their efforts to protect plant health in agriculture, forestry and the uncultivated environment (standard-setting activities and exchange of information). On its official website, EPPO also provides:

- conducted by EPPO Expert Working Groups:All PRAs - on Pest Risk Analysis which have been presented to various EPPO Panels:Working documents - (early warning on emerging pests which could present a risk for the Euro-Mediterranean region):The EPPO Alert List - on EPPO work on PRA oRead more n.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) 2013. EPPO activities on Invasive Alien Plants

The site provides lists of invasive and potentially invasive alien species, risk and pathway analyses, management standards, links to relevant resources, and other information services (database, bulletin, reporting service etc.) Wild plants can be threatened by the introduction and spread of pests, and notably by 'invasive alien plants' which can seriously disturb and destroy natural plant communities. Therefore in the early 2000s, EPPO started to work more specifically on invasive alien plants, in particular to analyze the risks presented by specific invasive alien plant species for the EPPO region and recommend measures to prevent their introduction and spread via international trade."

Evaluating Non-native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity

Executive Summary NatureServe, in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy and the U.S. National Park Service, developed this Invasive Species Assessment Protocol as a tool for assessing, categorizing, and listing non-native invasive vascular plants according to their impact on native species and natural biodiversity in a large geographical area such as a nation, state, province, or ecological region. This protocol is designed to make the process of assessing and listing invasive plants objective and systematic, and to incorporate scientific documentation of the information used to determine each species’ rank. NatureServe’s methodology has previously included assessments of the conservation significance of native species; this protocol extends that scope to non-native species as well. The protocol is used to assess species (or infraspecific taxa, as appropriate) individually for a specified “region of interest” and to assign each species an Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) of High, Medium, Low, or Insignificant to categorize its negative impact on natural biodiversity within that region. The protocol includes 20 questions, each with four scaled responses (A-D, plus U = unknown). The 20 questions are grouped into four sections: Ecological Impact, Current Distribution and Abundance, Trend in Distribution and Abundance, and Management Difficulty. Each species is assessed by considering these questions, with the answers used to calculate a subrank for each of the four sections. An overall I-Rank is then calculated from the subranks. Text comments and citations to information sources should be provided as documentation for each answer selected, along with a concise text summary of the major considerations leading to the overall rank. While designed for use in a specified large, contiguous, biogeographically diverse region, the protocol can be adapted to specified noncontiguous regions (such as the 50 states of the United States), and may also be applied to assess the impact in the non-native range of a species that is also present elsewhere in a region as a native. NatureServe is now using this protocol to assess the biodiversity impact of the approximately 3,500 non-native vascular plant species established outside cultivation in the United States. The protocol is offered here in generalized form for others who might wish to use it to conduct similar assessments and create lists of invasive plants for other nations, states, provinces, ecological regions, or comparable areas. An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol Page 5.

FAO EMPRES-i Global Animal Disease information System

EMPRES Global Animal Disease Information System (EMPRES-i) is a web-based application that has been designed to support veterinary services by facilitating the organization and access to regional and global disease information. Timely and reliable disease information enhances early warning and response to transboundary and high impact animal diseases, including emergent zoonoses, and supports prevention, improved management and progressive approach to control. The team conducts global surveillance of animal disease pathogens and we follow up disease events of significance in terms of impact at global level, livestock production, food security and public health. Risk assessment is a key activity of the team in Rome.

Finland's National Strategy on Invasive Alien Species

The objective of Finland’s National Strategy on Invasive Alien Species is to minimise the threat and damage caused by invasive alien species, both those already present in Finland and the potential ones. The measures proposed in the Strategy address invasive alien species introduced to Finland by human action, intentionally or unintentionally, which are spreading uncontrolledly and cause harmful impacts as they do so. The purpose of the Strategy is to prevent the introduction to Finland of new invasive alien species that spread uncontrolledly.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2013. Introduction of species

This site provies information on the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of species introductions in aquatic ecosystems. Information on legal instruments and codes of practice on the use of introduced species is also available.

Galapagos Invasive Species

The site offers information on invasive species of all taxa in the Galapagos Islands. This includes summaries of general information on alien invasive species, manuals and protocols to identify and manage species, information on regional planning and community involvement in conservation efforts as well as lists of noxious weeds and other invasive species in the Galapagos. Statement of purpose for the Galapagos invasive species web site:
Inform the wider world (local, national and international) of the invasive species problem in Galapagos, the challenges which their management presents, and advances in their eradication and control, in order to:

enable exchange of information and experience between technical people;
identify areas of common interest between experts, projects, organisations and countries:
broadcast the successes and lessons learned from the programmes of eradication and control of invasive species in Galapagos;
broadcast knowledge of the problems caused and impact of invasive species in Galapagos.

GB Non-native Species Secretariat - Risk Assessment

The Risk Assessment page gives general information, links to helpful resources, and provides Risk Assessments for some species in the UK.

GISP Training Course on Best Practice for the Management of Introduced Marine Pests

Training course materials on best practice for management of introduced marine species. Hilliard R. 2005 Best Practice for the Management of Introduced Marine Pests - A Review. Publisher Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP)

GISP Training Course on Drafting Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Invasive Species (Regional) - English

GISP Training Course on Drafting Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Invasive Species in English. Shine C. 2008 A Toolkit for Developing Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Invasive Alien Species. Publisher Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP)

GISP Training Course on Strategies and Tools to Prevent the Introduction of Invasive Species (Tanzania) in English.

The purpose of this course is to provide general training for border clearance officials and others on pre-border, border, and post-border strategies and approaches for preventing the introduction and spread of invasive species alien species (IAS).

GISP Training Course on the Management of Invasive Alien Species (National: Kenya & Mozambique)

Training course materials on invasive alien species management in Kenya and Mozambique. Wittenberg R. & Cock M.J.W. 2001 (eds) Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit for Best Prevention and Management Practices. Publisher Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP)

Global Early Warning System for major animal diseases including zoonoses

The Global Early Warning System (GLEWS) is a joint system that builds on the added value of combining and coordinating the alert and disease intelligence mechanisms of OIE, FAO and WHO for the international community and stakeholders to assist in prediction, prevention and control of animal disease threats, including zoonoses, through sharing of information, epidemiological analysis and joint risk assessment.

Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) 2007. Development of case studies on the economic impacts of invasive species in Africa Salvinia molesta

This report details the results of an extensive desktop study to quantify the economic impacts of an invasive weed species in Africa. This report examines the economic impact of this invasive weed species, including impacts on fishing yields, agricultural production and tourism. The impacts were valued using market prices (where available) and published data on yields and productivity.

Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) 2007. Development of case studies on the economic impacts of invasive species in Africa. Mimosa pigra

This report details the results of an extensive desktop study to quantify the economic impacts of Mimosa pigra (Mimosa), an invasive weed species in Africa.This report examines the economic impact of these invasive weed species, including impacts on fishing yields, agricultural production and tourism. The impacts were valued using market prices (where available) and published data on yields and productivity.

Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) Publications & Reports

The Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) together with its Partner Organisations began activities in 1997 with a Knowledge-Building Phase which culminated in a number of groundbreaking publications. A wide range of themes have been covered including Invasive species management; Best practices in pre-import risk screening for species of live animals in international trade; Biofuel crops and non-native species; Marine biofouling and guidelines for prevention and management; Invasive species and Protected Areas; Economic impacts of invasive species; National and Regional Legislation for promotion and Support to the Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Invasive Species; the Aid Trade - International Assistance Programs as Pathways for the Introduction of Invasive Alien Species and Alien species in Aquaculture - considerations for responsible use.

Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. (McNeely, J.A., Mooney, H.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P. & Waage, J.K. (eds.) 2001. IUCN on behalf of the Global Invasive Species Programme, Gland, Switzerland) and Cambridge, UK

This document details a global strategy on invasive alien species. It covers the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of invasive alien species, their pathways, dispersal and movement, as well as management, policy information and strategic responses. Included are case studies, a list of relevant organisations and institutions, as well as a glossary. The Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species is based on contributions from the team leaders of the eleven main components addressed under Phase I of the Global Invasive Species Programme. This strategy summarizes key findings of the Phase I Synthesis Conference held September 2000 in Cape Town, Republic of South Africa and presents ten strategic responses that address mitigating the threats of invasive alien species. Directed toward the decision-makers whose policies and practices are affecting the movement of species around the world, this Strategy strives to provide a resource to increase awareness and provide policy advice.

Guide to Implementation of Phytosanitary Standards in Forestry

With increasing global trade, new threats to forest health emerge due to the increased risk and frequency of trade-driven international pest movement. In the last decade several pests have been introduced into other countries and continents through international trade, and these have contributed to the international recognition of the importance of phytosanitary measures. How much do you know about the health of forests? FAO, using an integrated approach to deal with forest health problems, has produced the Guide to implementation of phytosanitary standards in forestry that provides easy to understand information about everything you should know to help protect the forests from pests. The page also links to an interactive training course developed by FAO and IPPC for anyone wishing to learn more about the importance and relevance of phytosanitary measures in the international trade in forest commodities.

Guidelines for a Phytosanitary Import Regulatory System

This standard describes the structure and operation of a phytosanitary import regulatory system and the rights, obligations and responsibilities which should be considered in establishing, operating and revising the system. In this standard any reference to legislation, regulation, procedure, measure or action is a reference to phytosanitary legislation, regulation etc. unless otherwise specified.

Guidelines for Inspection (IPPC)

This standard describes procedures for the inspection of consignments of plants, plant products and other regulated articles at import and export. It is focused on the determination of compliance with phytosanitary requirements, based on visual examination, documentary checks, and identity and integrity checks.

Guidelines for national ballast water status : assessments

This document provides guidelines and advice for national administrations through the processes of evaluating and preparing for the implementation of ballast water management measures.

Guidelines for national ballast water status : assessments (Arabic version)

This document provides guidelines and advice for national administrations through the processes of evaluating and preparing for the implementation of ballast water management measures.

Guidelines for national ballast water status : assessments (Russian version)

This document provides guidelines and advice for national administrations through the processes of evaluating and preparing for the implementation of ballast water management measures.

Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms (2005).

This standard provides guidelines for risk management related to the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms. It lists the related responsibilities of contracting parties to the IPPC, national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) or other responsible authorities, importers and exporters (as described in the standard). The standard addresses biological control agents capable of self-replication (including parasitoids, predators, parasites, nematodes, phytophagous organisms, and pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and viruses), as well as sterile insects and other beneficial organisms (such as mycorrhizae and pollinators), and includes those packaged or formulated as commercial products. Provisions are also included for import for research in quarantine facilities of non-indigenous biological control agents and other beneficial organisms.

Guidelines on biofuels and invasive species

These guidelines outline step-by-step recommendations for interventions to minimise risks of biological invasions along the biofuels supply chain.

Handbook on Import Risk Analysis Animals and Animal Products [World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)] Volume I

Volume 1 Handbook introduces the concepts of import risk analysis and discusses qualitative risk analysis. The provision of tested practical examples makes it a useful training tool.

Handbook on Import Risk Analysis Animals and Animal Products [World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)] Volume II

The handbook will provide practical guidance to Veterinary Services confronted with the need to analyse the risks posed by imports, to ensure that stakeholders, risk analysts and decision-makers can be confident that the disease risks posed have been identified and can be managed effectively. The handbook will also be useful as a training aid to address the critical need for capacity building in this discipline.

Hawaiian Pacific Weed Risk Assessment (HPWRA)

This is a risk assessment tool targeting parties interested in importing, selling or growing plants. Experts screen a plant species to assess its invasiveness. Users can access a list of plant assessments, or submit the name of a plant species for screening. HPWRA botanists look up published and on-line information to answer 49 questions about a plant’s biology, ecology & invasive tendencies elsewhere. The answers result in a score that predicts whether a plant is likely to be invasive in Hawai‘I or other tropical Pacific islands sharing a similar climate.

I3N - Argentina

As part of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN), the I3N Invasive Species Network is a regional network of people and institutions sharing information on invasive species of all taxa. The database is under construction, and currently only features a list of invasive species.

I3N - Brazil

This website hosts the National Invasive Species Database for Brasil. The site contains information on risk assessments of non-native species, case studies of IAS in Brazil, links to published articles, legal regulations and a photo gallery of invasive species.

I3N - Tools For The Prevention Of Biological Invasions

I3N is the invasive species thematic network of the Inter- American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) I3N Risk Analysis of Invasion Tool and Vector Analysis of Pathways Tool

For plants, these tools are available for download in Excel format as separate worksheets in the same file. Terrestrial Vertebrates and Fishes have only Risk Analysis Tools available. The user manuals for each of the tools are separate pdf files. If upon opening the Excel files an alert is generated saying "this file contains macros," you must enable macros for the file to operate properly. These tools are also available in Spanish and Portuguese.

ICES. 2012. Report of the ICES Working Group on Introduction and Transfers of Marine Organisms (WGITMO), 14 - 16 March 2012, Lisbon, Portugal. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:31. 301 pp.

The ICES Code of Practice sets forth recommended procedures and practices to diminish the risks of detrimental effects from the intentional introduction and transfer of marine (including brackish water) organisms. The Code is aimed at a broad audience since it applies to both public (commercial and governmental) and private (including scientific) interests. In short, any persons engaged in activities that could lead to the intentional or accidental release of exotic species should be aware of the procedures covered by the Code of Practice.


iMapInvasives provides an on-line, GIS-based data management system to assist citizen scientists and natural resource managers working to protect natural resources from the threat of invasive species. It includes a mobile phone app and can be used with ArcPad

International mechanisms for the control and responsible use of alien species in aquatic ecosystems.

This document contains the report of and papers presented at the Ad hoc Expert Consultation, International Mechanisms for the Control and Responsible Use of Alien Species in Aquatic Ecosystems, held 27–30 August 2003, in Xishuangbanna, People's Republic of China. Bartley, D.M.; Bhujel, R.C.; Funge-Smith, S.; Olin, P.G.; Phillips, M.J. (comps./eds.) International mechanisms for the control and responsible use of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. Report of an Ad Hoc Expert Consultation. Xishuangbanna, People's Republic of China, 27–30 August 2003. Rome, FAO. 2005. 195p.

International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) - Standards

International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs). These are the standards adopted by the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM), which is the governing body of the IPPC. The IPPC is the only standard setting organization for plant health. In addition, these standards, guidelines and recommendations are recognized as the basis for phytosanitary measures applied in trade by the Members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). Both contracting and non-contracting parties to the IPPC are encouraged to implement these standards. Standards in themselves are not regulatory instruments but come into force once countries establish requirements within their national legislation. Requests for specific information on import requirements should be addressed to the national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) of the country of import.

International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) – Phytosanitary information portal

At you can find and contribute phytosanitary technical resources from and to the world's plant protection community. The IPPC Secretariat encourages contributions in any language from anyone in the world working in the field of plant protection including IPPC Contracting Parties, Regional Plant Protection Organisations and other relevant organisations.

Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit for Best Prevention and Management Practices. Wittenberg R. & Cock M.J.W. 2001 (eds) Publisher GISP.

The layout of the toolkit is intended to be largely self-explanatory. An introductory chapter to set the scene is followed by Chapter 2 on building strategy and policy, (i.e. how to develop national plans and support for them). Methods for prevention of invasive species and the risk-analysis process are dealt with in Chapter 3, while methods for early detection of new invasive species are reviewed in Chapter 4. A broad review of different management approaches is offered in Chapter 5, and some thoughts on how to use the toolkit are provided in Chapter 6.

Invasive Species Ireland

The website contains a range of resources, information and case studies on invasive species and their management in Ireland. Species profiles contain ecological information and pictures, along with simple measures to prevent their spread. The Biosecurity section provides guidelines and codes of practice for fields such as horticulture, aquaculture and other general activities in order to minimise the chances of spread for invasive species. The site also has a Management Toolkit section, which provides extensive information on implementing measures of control, and these information include risk assessments, legislation, biocontrol, other control measures (chemical, physical etc.), priority setting, collaboration and local action. In Ireland, practical management of introduced species is challenging because of the cross-border implications of controlling introductions and spread. A pro-active stance is fundamental since prevention of introductions is demonstrably more cost-effective than reactive control or eradication measures.

Invasive Species Ireland acts as a co-ordination mechanism and provides advice and resources for stakeholders, in addition to carrying out risk assessment, policy development, education and awareness activities, research and development of invasive species action plans.


Invasive Species Ireland- Management Toolkit- Risk Assessment

The Invasive Species Ireland risk analysis mechanism was originally developed in 2007 but revised during 2013. The mechanism consists of two assessment approaches: 1.Prioritisation Risk Assessment 2.Detailed Risk Assessment

Invasive species, climate change and ecosystem-based adaptation : addressing multiple drivers of global change

This report focuses on the primary linkages between climate change and the spread of invasive species as well as the secondary and tertiary interactions of their corresponding impacts. It includes a list of relevant case studies and a set of recommendations to aid policy makers in integrating invasive species prevention and management with climate change adaption and mitigation strategies.

IUCN Guidelines For The Prevention Of Biodiversity Loss Caused By Alien Invasive Species (February 2000)


Marine Biofouling: An Assessment of the Risks and Management Initiatives. Compiled by Lynn Jackson on behalf of the Global Invasive Species Programme and the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), 2008. 68pp

The escalating numbers of invasive species in the marine environment, together with an increasing awareness of the implications thereof, have stimulated a substantial amount of research aimed both at gaining a better understanding of marine invasions and at finding ways to prevent and/or manage them. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of those initiatives dealing with biofouling as a pathway for marine invasions.

Marine Bioinvasions: A collection of reviews

A collection of journal articles on invasive species in marine environments.

National Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Trinidad and Tobago 2011

The purpose of the NISS is to provide a framework to effectively manage potential as well as established IAS in Trinidad and Tobago.

National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions

The database provides detailed information on non-native marine pest plant and animal species in Australian waters. Species datasheets contain comprehensive information on taxonomic classification, morphology, ecology and physiology,vectors, pathways of introduction and impacts on natural systems, as well as a list of references and articles with additional information pertaining to that particular species. NIMPIS is a central repository of information on the biology, ecology and distribution (international and national) of invasive marine pest species. It includes known species that have been introduced to Australian waters and species that are considered to pose a potential of future introduction.

OIE Guidelines for assessing the risk of non-native animals becoming invasive (animals other than pathogens)

The OIE standard for import risk analysis covers the potential movement of pathogens. The guidelines developed in this document are intended to address the complementary process of assessing the risk of non-native animals becoming invasive.

OIE standards on animal diseases

The OIE standards provide measures to ensure safe international trade in animals and animal products as well as measures for disease control and eradication. The OIE standards cover various internationally important animal diseases, some of which are considered to be invasive alien species based on the CBD definition. The OIE standards on animal diseases (and import risk analysis (animal disease pathogens)) are presented in two Codes, i.e. Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Aquatic Animal Health Code and two Manuals, i.e. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines of Terrestrial Animals and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals.

There are links from the page to (the Terrestrial Animal Health Code),The
(Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals), The
(Aquatic Animal Health Code and the
(Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals.

OIE: Invasive alien animal spcies

Guidelines for assessing the risk of non-native animals becoming invasive.

Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests

The standard provides details for the conduct of pest risk analysis (PRA) to determine if pests are quarantine pests. It describes the integrated processes to be used for risk assessment as well as the selection of risk management options. S1 It also includes details regarding the analysis of risks of plant pests to the environment and biological diversity, including those risks affecting uncultivated/unmanaged plants, wild flora, habitats and ecosystems contained in the PRA area. Some explanatory comments on the scope of the IPPC in regard to environmental risks are given in Annex 1. S2 It includes guidance on evaluating potential phytosanitary risks to plants and plant products posed by living modified organisms (LMOs). This guidance does not alter the scope of ISPM No. 11 but is intended to clarify issues related to the PRA for LMOs. Some explanatory comments on the scope of the IPPC in regard to PRA for LMOs are given in Annex

Predicting Invasive Plants in Florida Using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment. Gordon, Doria R., Onderdonk, Daphne A., Fox, Alison M., Stocker, Randall K. and Gantz, Crysta 2008. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 1(2):178-195. 2008.

Abstract of artile: Screening tools that effectively predict which nonnative species are likely to become invasive are necessary because of the disproportionate ecological and economic costs associated with invaders. We tested the effectiveness of the Australian Weed Risk Assessment system (WRA) in distinguishing plant species that are major invaders, minor invaders, and noninvaders in Florida. The test included 158 annuals and perennials in six growth forms from 52 families in 27 orders. The WRA with a secondary screen met all hypothesized accuracy levels: it correctly rejected 92% of test species that have been documented to be invasive in Florida and correctly accepted 73% of the noninvaders. The incorrect rejection of noninvaders was 8% with the remaining 19% of noninvaders falling into the “evaluate further” outcome. Only 10% of the 158 species required further evaluation. Invaders of natural areas and agricultural systems were identified with equal accuracy. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated high separation of invaders from noninvaders. The degree to which the WRA is precautionary may be adjusted by altering the cutoff scores that define the “accept, evaluate further,” and “reject” outcomes. This approach could be adopted in Florida as a screening mechanism to reduce importation of new invaders. (Article available with BioOne account).

Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC)

The Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC) is a largely virtual institute providing on-line information services in the area of biological invasions research and management. Facilitation of international cooperation on the invasive species related issues, linking international research community and general public, managers and decision-makers as well as other interested stakeholders are among the main REABIC objectives.
The REABIC is started in 2001 as a web portal, providing access to the global, regional, sub-regional and national Internet resources on biological invasions (the Regional Biological Invasions Centre project, RBIC). At present REABIC is serving as an independent virtual data centre for applied research and management of invasive species focusing on the Euro-Asian region and providing online services for interested stakeholders around a World..
REABIC is hosting web sites of the International Society of Limnology Working Group on Aquatic Invasive Species (SIL WGAIS), and the European Information and Research Network on Aquatic Invasive Species (ERNAIS).
REABIC is a partner organisation and data provider for the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (REABIC profile at the GBIF web site) and for the developing European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN)
REABIC is serving also as an official publisher of open access, peer-reviewed international journals focusing on biological invasions Aquatic Invasions, BioInvasions Records and Management of Biological Invasions
Currently REABIC is working on development of online decision support systems for management of invasive alien species in the Black Sea area (see "Decision Support System for Management of Invasive Alien Species in the Black Sea Basin"). with support of European Commission via the EnviroGRIDS project

Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC) -Risk Assessment Tools

The page lists a number of tools, both in PDF form and links to other websites.  There are also some completed risk assessments.

Regulated non-quarantine pests: concept and applications

The standard describes the concept of non-regulated pests and identifies their characteristics. It describes the application of the concept in practice and the relevant elements of regulatory systems.

Requirements for the establishment of areas of low pest prevalence

The standard describes the requirements and the procedures for the establishment of areas of low pest prevalence (ALPP) for regulated pests in an area and, to facilitate export, for pests regulated by an importing country only. This includes identification, verification and maintence and use of those ALPPs.

Resources that may assist risk assessment practitioners. (IUCN-ISSG)

This site provides an extensive list of publicly accessible resources that may assist risk assessment procedures.

Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits. Keller, Reuben P., Lodge, David M. and David C. Finnoff 2007. PNAS January 2, 2007 vol. 104 no. 1 203–207

This article discusses the economic benefits of risk assessments for invasive species.

Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Recalibration and refinement of models

This report examines the factors that can be used to distinguish between species that pose a high risk of becoming a new pest and those that pose a lower risk. This information is used to construct a scientifically based risk assessment model to evaluate the risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic species in Australia. This report provides information and guidance that will assist those responsible for assessing and managing the risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates, including government policy makers, quarantine officials and wildlife managers.

Risk assessment models for establishment of exotic vertebrates in Australia and New Zealand. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra. (Bomford, M. 2008.)

This project was commissioned by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre to validate and refine risk assessment models used in decisions to import and maintain exotic vertebrate species. It builds on earlier work conducted by the Bureau of Rural Sciences for the Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. The findings will guide future decisions on the import of new species, and on restrictions imposed on exotic species already kept in Australia and New Zealand.

Risk assessment protocols and decision making tools for use of alien species in aquaculture and stock enhancement (Copp et al. 2008)

The ENSARS provides a structured framework for evaluating the risks of escape, introduction to and establishment in open waters, of any non-native aquatic organism being used (or associated with those used) in aquaculture. In addition, it provides evaluation of potential risks posed by transport pathways, rearing facilities, non-target infectious agents, and the potential organism, ecosystem and socio-economic impacts.

Risk assessment: Simultaneously prioritizing the control of invasive plant species and the conservation of rare plant species

Miller, Thaddeus K.; Allen, Craig R.; Landis, Wayne G.; and Merchant, James W., Risk assessment: Simultaneously prioritizing the control of invasive plant species and the conservation of rare plant speci (2010). Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit - - Staff Publications. Paper 17.

Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Sci. Ser. Tech Rep., Cefas Lowestoft, 129: 32pp. (Copp, G.H., Garthwaite, R. and Gozlan, R.E., 2005.)

The aim of the present discussion paper is to propose a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard introduction and rationale identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy described above. In doing so, the present paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion whilst validation of the proposed methodology (e.g. Daehler et al., 2004) takes place.

Saint Lucia National Invasive Species Strategy

The goals of the NISS are four-fold and aim to minimize the harmful effects of invasive species on the environment, economy and society of Saint Lucia:
[1] to provide a national framework for invasive species prevention and management;
[2] to prevent introduction and establishment of further invasions;
[3] to reduce the impacts of invasive species already present in the country through a hierarchical approach comprising (i) Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR), (ii) Eradication, (iii) Mitigation and Containment, (iv) Restoration;
[4] to strengthen Saint Lucia’s participation in regional and international efforts for invasive species prevention and management.

South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) - Invasive Aliens Early Detection and Rapid Response Programme

The programme focuses on plant invasion control as part of SANBI's legal mandate to monitor and report on invasive alien species within Southen Africa

Terrestrial Animal Health Code

The OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Terrestrial Code) sets out standards for the improvement of animal health and welfare and veterinary public health worldwide, including through standards for safe international trade in terrestrial animals (mammals, birds and bees) and their products.

The Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: A Tool for Creating Regional and National Lists of Invasive Nonnative Plants that Negatively Impact Biodiversity

We developed a protocol for categorizing nonnative plants according to their negative impacts on biodiversity in a large area such as a state, nation, or ecological region. Our objective was to provide a tool that makes the process of identifying, categorizing, and listing nonnative plants that cause negative impacts to biodiversity analytic, transparent, and equitable and that yields lists that are useful to researchers, land managers, regulators, consumers, and commercial interests such as the nursery industry. The protocol was designed to distinguish between species that cause high, medium, low, or insignificant negative impacts to native biodiversity within the state, region, or nation of interest. Randall, John M., Morse, Larry E. , Benton, Nancy., Hiebert, Ron., Lu, Stephanie and Killeffer, Terri (2008) The Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: A Tool for Creating Regional and National Lists of Invasive Nonnative Plants that Negatively Impact Biodiversity. Invasive Plant Science and Management 2008 1:36–49.

The Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre (NBIC) Alien Species

A new semi-quantitative method that enables researchers and others to assess the environmental impacts posed by alien species has now been implemented in Norway. While the method is tailored to the Norwegian environment, it can easily be adapted to other countries, and fills an international need for a quantifiable, uniform approach to classifying and assessing alien species. The publication that details the potential impacts of alien species in Norwayis now released in English.

The use of integrated measures in a systems approach to pest risk management

This standard provides guidelines for the development and evaluation of integrated measures in a systems approach as an option for pest risk management under the relevant international standards for pest risk analysis (PRA) designed to meet phytosanitary import requirements for plants, plant products and other regulated articles.

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface

The WAHIS Interface provides access to all data held within OIE's new World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). It replaces and significantly extends the former web interface named Handistatus II System.

Trade and invasive species in the Caribbean : a universe of risk

This report represents the preliminary steps in the triage and identification of pathways of high risk in the Caribbean. Its objective is to suggest priority areas for international cooperation in the management of risk from invasive species introductions via trade-related pathways in the Caribbean.

Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species Test Cases for the Snakeheads (Channidae) and Armored Catfi shes ( Loricariidae) in North American Inland Waters. Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 2009.

This report covers guidelines in risk assessments and socioeconomic impacts and analyses of invasive aquatic species in Canada, Mexico and the United States. There are several case studies of armoured catfish included in the document. Also available in the appendices are: an organism risk assessment form, an inferential estimation of organism risk and pathway risk, and a glossary of relevant terms and definitions.

United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)- Bioenergy Issue Paper Series No 3: Gain or Pain Biofuels and Invasive Species

The document is part of a series of articles concerning the use of species with high invasive potential for biofuel production. Included are the invasive risks of biofuel crops, prevention and mitigation options, case studies and definitions, a list of relevant resources, as well as a guide for policy makers, investors and developers.

What is This Bug

This site covers the USA but focuses on the state of California, it links to the USDA Pest Tracker Map to see where invasive species have been identified and what areas in the United States are at greatest risk and allows addition of data via the "Report a Pest" Online system and the "Report a Pest" Mobile App.

Young T., R. (2006). National and Regional Legislation for Promotion and Support to the Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Invasive Species. Biodiversity series, Paper No 108. 98 pp. Published by The World Bank Environment Department (2006).

The publication addresses different aspects of the invasive alien species issue, but has a lot of content relating to prevention. Part I provides a conceptual and scientific summary and introduction, and Part II provides a very brief overview of some of the key global developments in the field, while Part III examines in greater detail the legislative tools available for use in the control of species introduction, and invasive species. Part IV discusses some of the special concerns relating to the process of building one, or more legislative frameworks utilizing the legislative tools described in Part III, and, provides, in some cases, a brief identification of how the selection and use of those tools might differ within the developing country context.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith