Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Extrafloral nectary glands on petiole, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules free, Leaves simple, or appearing so, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets 1, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Leaves reduced to phyllodia, Inflorescences spikes or spike-like, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx hairy, Petals united, valvate, Petals white, Stamens numerous, more than 10, Stamens completely free, separate, Stamens long exserted, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit tardily or weakly dehiscent, Fruit indehiscent, Fruit strongly curved, falcate, bent, or lunate, Fruit spirally coiled or contorted, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit hairy, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seed with elliptical line or depression, pleurogram, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seeds reniform, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black, Seeds with appendage - aril, caruncle, funiculus, or strophiole.
Acacia mangium grows up to 30 metres (98 ft), often with a straight trunk. A. mangium has about 142,000 seeds/kg. To break down dormancy mature seed requires pre-germination treatments such as mechanical scarification (scratching the surface) or boiling water. This treatment leads to a fast germination and typically exceeds 75%. Like many other legumes, it is able to fix nitrogen in the soil.A. mangium is a popular species for forest plantation and used more and more also for agroforestry projects. In mixed cultures, plants can profit of the shadow from A. mangium and the nitrogen fixationA. mangium will tolerate low fertility soils with impeded drainage, but prefers fertile sites with good drainage. Soil depth and topographic position can influence yields. With respect to distance from the equator, there are significant differences in performance under cultivation. A mean annual height increase of about 3 to 4 m is usual near the equator. In areas further from the equator growth is lower.
A. mangium trees produce sapwood and heartwood. The heartwood’s colour is brownish yellow shimmery and medium textured. Because the timber is extremely heavy, hard, very strong, tough, and liable to warp and crack badly it is used for furniture, doors and window frames. The glossy and smooth surface finish after polishing leads also to a potential for making export orientated parquet flooring tiles and artifacts.
Since these trees crack easily and temperamental for use in furniture, this is mainly used for the paper pulp and biomass Fuel industries. Both industries will require the A. mangium trees to be chipped and delivered by the ton and moisture rates.
Because Acacia mangium trees largely increase the turnover rate of N in the topsoil, it might improve also the mineral N availability in soils in mixed cultures. Due to the fact that it is a very fast growing tree it develops an intensive rooting system, particularly in a low fertility soil. That helps to recover degraded tropical lands for what A. mangium is very useful. The tree is widely used in Goa in the mining industry for rehabilitation of the waste dumps as it is a drought resistant species and binds the sterile mine waste consisting of lateritic strata. In Columbia, it has been used for restoring wasteland created by open-pit gold mining.
^Francis, John K. (2003-01-01). "Acacia mangium Willd" (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. Reforestation, Nurseries & Genetics Resources. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-24.[dead link]
^Jeyanny, V., SS Lee & K Wan Rasidah, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (2011). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilisation on the growth of Acacia mangium seedlings. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23(4): 404–409
^Sharma, S. K., Kumar, P., Rao, R. V., Sujatha, M., Shukla, S. R., 2011. Rational utilization of plantation grown Acacia mangium Willd. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 8(2):97-99
^ ab^Voigtlaender M. et al. (2012). Introducing Acacia mangium trees in Eucalyptus grandis plantations: consequences for soil organic matter stocks and nitrogen mineralization. Plant and Soil 352(1-2):99-111 doi:10.1038/511155d
^Kadir W.R, Kadir A.A., Van Cleemput O., Zaharah Abdul Rahman. 1996. Field grown Acacia mangium: How intensive is root growth? Journal of Tropical Forest Science 10(3): 283–291 (1998)