"Snakes can also engage in what's called 'concertina' movement, in which one or two curves pass down the length of an otherwise straight animal. This works well for an animal confined within a channel just a bit larger than itself (such as a rodent's burrow). At least one snake, Bitis caudalis, the South African desert viper, can jump, getting entirely airborne and moving a distance almost equal to its length (Gans 1974)." (Vogel 2003:489)
Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats Specimen Records:1936 Specimens with Sequences:1831 Specimens with Barcodes:1446 Species:482 Species With Barcodes:420 Public Records:780 Public Species:246 Public BINs:220
The Colubridae (from Latin coluber, snake) are a family of snakes. With 304 genera and 1,938 species, Colubridae is the largest snake family, and includes about two-thirds of all current snake species. The earliest species of the family date back to the Oligocene epoch. Colubrid species are found on every continent except Antarctica.
While most colubrids are nonvenomous (or have venom that is not known to be harmful to humans) and are mostly harmless, a few groups, such as genus Boiga, can produce medically significant bites, while the boomslang, the twig snakes and the Asian genus Rhabdophis have caused human fatalities.
Some of the colubrids are described as opisthoglyphous, meaning they have elongated, grooved teeth located in the back of the upper jaw. The opisthoglyphous dentition appears at least twice in the history of snakes. These are unlike those of vipers and elapids, which are located in the front.
The Colubridae are not a natural group, as many are more closely related to other groups, such as elapids, than to each other. This family has classically been a garbage bin taxon for snakes that do not fit elsewhere. It is hoped that ongoing research will sort out the relations within this group.
Subfamily Boodontinae (sometimes moved to family Lamprophiidae as subfamily Lamprophiinae)
^Fry, B.G.; Vidal, N.; van der Weerd, L.; Kochva, E.; Renjifo, C. (2009). "Evolution and diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system". Journal of Proteomics 72: 127–136. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2009.01.009.