Phalaris paradoxa is a species of grass in genus Phalaris. Common names include awned canary-grass and hood canarygrass.
The spikelets are very different from those of other members of this genus. The spiklet glumes each have a hook.
It is native to Africa, Asia, and Europe, and it has been introduced widely. Its distribution within the United States includes Arizona, California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Washington.
Stewart in his Annotated Catalogue (1972) also cites; Quetta: Harbhajan Singh (DD) and Lahore: J. L. Stewart. As this species is so distinctive these specimens are probably correctly cited. The species is, however, a very rare casual in Pakistan.
Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or cul m, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Inflorescence or spikelets partially hidden in leaf sheaths, subtended by spatheole, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets in groups of 7, 1 fertile, the others sterile, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma becoming indurate, enclosing palea and caryopsis, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea longer than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
Tufted annual. Culms 20-100 cm high. Panicle up to 9 cm long and 2 cm wide, dense, oblong, tapering to a narrow base; spikelets falling from the inflorescence in groups of 6 or 7, with 5 or 6 sterile spikelets clustered about a single fertile spikelet. Glumes of fertile spikelets 5.5-8.2 mm long, acuminate to subulate, winged in the upper portion, the wing with a tooth-like projection near the middle; sterile florets of the fertile spikelet obsolete, represented only by knob-like projections at the base of the fertile floret; fertile floret 2.5-3.5 mm long, indurated, light-coloured, shining, glabrous or with a few short hairs near the apex.