Key Questions: Distribution and potential impact - Impact on livelihoods

A rapid assessment of the effects of invasive species on Human livelihoods, especially of the rural poor. McGarry D., Shackelton C.M, Gambiza J., Shackelton S.E. & Fabricius C.F. 2005. Deaprtment of Environmental Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown.

The study included two components. The first was a series (10) of desktop studies commissioned from around the world. The second was two rapid case studies conducted in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Both components aimed to gather qualitative and limited quantitative data on the effects that IAS have on rural livelihoods, quality of life and peoples’ ability to fulfil their basic needs from the environment.

CBD - Biodiversity for Development

The overall goal of the Biodiversity for Development initiative is to improve the integration of the three objectives of the Convention into development plans and priorities in keeping the spirit of Article 6 (b). The three inter-related objectives of the initiative are: 1.To promote the integration of biodiversity considerations into sectoral policies or cross-sectoral strategies (e.g. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers or Sustainable Development Strategies) as well as ensuring the development dimension in National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs); 2.To facilitate the exchange of experiences and the dissemination of lessons learned and good practices regarding the integration of biodiversity into development sectors and poverty reduction strategies and programmes; 3.To strengthen the linkages between CBD Programmes of Work and development / poverty alleviation, and raise awareness of the Parties on this crucial issue.

Dry and Sub-humid Lands Biodiversity (CBD)

The biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands provides critical ecosystem services to support two billion people, 90% of whom live in developing countries. The conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity of dry and sub-humid lands is, therefore, central to livelihood development and poverty alleviation. This site provides links to national reports, case studies, toolkits and guidelines and other related information.

Ecological Economics

The journal is concerned with extending and integrating the study and management of “nature's household” (ecology) and “humankind's household” (economics). This integration is necessary because conceptual and professional isolation have led to economic and environmental policies which are mutually destructive rather than reinforcing in the long term.

Gender and Biodiversity - CBD

The importance of biodiversity to individuals varies according to gender. Based upon the social roles of and power relations between men and women, gender is shaped by culture, social relations, and natural environments. For this reason, we need to incorporate gender dimensions into our understanding of biodiversity and its conservation, sustainable use and the sharing of benefits. CBD developed a Gender Plan of Action in 2008 that defines the Secretariat’s role in stimulating and facilitating efforts on national, regional, and global levels to promote gender equality and mainstream a gender perspective. The Millennium Development Goals emphasize clear linkages between gender equality, poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Such insights should be included into our outlook and approach to reversing biodiversity loss, reducing poverty and improving human wellbeing.

Invasive Species and Poverty: Exploring the links. Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) 2007.

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was conducted between 2001 and 2005 to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and to analyse options available to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being. Carried out by some 1360 experts from 95 countries, it developed four global scenarios exploring plausible future changes in drivers, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and human well-being. It also examined the strengths and weaknesses of various response options that have been used to manage ecosystem services, and identified promising opportunities for enhancing human well-being while conserving ecosystems.

Linkages between Development Assistance and Invasive Alien Species in Freshwater Systems in South East Asia. Gutierrez, A.T. & Reaser, J.K. 2005 USAID Asia and Near East Bureau, Washington, DC.

Recognizing the significant impacts that IAS have on the environment, economy, and human health, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in cooperation with the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), sponsored a preliminary assessment to investigate the linkages between IAS and development assistance in the freshwater systems of Southeast Asia. This report details the findings of the assessment, which focused on three areas – (1) development assistance as pathway of introduction, (2) development assistance projects adversely impacted by IAS, and (3) development assistance projects working to address IAS.

The socioeconomic links between invasive alien species and poverty. Perrings C. 2005. Report to the Global Invasive Species Program.

The problem addressed in this report is the linkage between poverty and invasive alien species (IAS) – the introduction, establishment and spread of species outside of their original range.

Tilapias as alien aquatics in Asia and the Pacific: a review. De Silva, S.S; Subasinghe, R.P.; Bartley, D.M.; Lowther, A.: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 453. Rome, FAO. 2004. 65p.

Tilapias are not native to Asia but have been a significant component of inland fisheries and aquaculture in the region for over half a century. They have been introduced into over 90 countries worldwide, with a global distribution second only to common carp. The contribution of tilapias to global aquaculture production has increased over the past three decades with production in 2002 exceeding 1.5 million tonnes with an estimated value of US$1.8 billion. The average annual growth rate in aquaculture and capture fisheries production of tilapias from 1970 to 2002 has been 13.2 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively. In the present context of development, success of a species is determined not only by its contribution to production per se, but also by its social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts. Although tilapia has been associated with adverse environmental impacts, detailed analysis of the literature suggested that other factors, such as overfishing, environmental degradation from land-based activities, and changes in hydrological regime have probably been more responsible for adverse impacts. It is clear that numerous factors working together can impact biodiversity. It is also clear that tilapias, as a group of alien species, have made a significant contribution to food production, poverty alleviation and livelihoods support in Asia and the Pacific. In spite of the wide-scale introduction into Asian waters, there is scant explicit evidence to indicate that tilapias have been overly destructive environmentally.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith