In Great Britain and/or Ireland: Foodplant / saprobe epiphyllous, dimorphic conidioma of Ceuthospora coelomycetous anamorph of Ceuthospora mahoniae is saprobic on dead leaf of Mahonia aquifolium Remarks: season: 3-4
Foodplant / parasite aecium of Cumminsiella mirabilissima parasitises live leaf of Mahonia aquifolium Other: unusual host/prey
Foodplant / saprobe gregarious, covered then erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora foliicola is saprobic on dead leaf of Mahonia aquifolium
Reasons: Mahonia aquifolium is native and relatively common in western North America, from Alberta south through California into northern Mexico. Roots, stem, and leaves of this species are wild-collected for medicinal use and are traded in the medicinal, herbal, and landscaping markets. M. aquifolium is reportedly used as a substitute for an herb that is heavily commercially traded. It is also the preferred species in this genus for commercial collection due to its large root size. This species may be threatened over time by increased interest in its medicinal properties if wild-collection is not monitored.