"Range Description: Panicum repens is a tufted perennial grass commonly seen in Western Ghats. In India, it is widely spreaded in almost all the districts in Andra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal (Cook 1996). Countries - Native: India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, West Bengal)"
P. repens se propaga principalmente por el rizoma, que es difícil de controlar una vez establecido. P. repens desarrolla rizomas alrededor de los 50 días de edad en el verano (24-30°C), y las divisiones primarias y secundarias del rizoma se desarrollan normalmente entre los 70 y 130 días después de haber sido plantado (DAP), respectivamente. Los rizomas pueden penetrar en el suelo hasta 50cm de profundidad y requieren hasta 120 días para completar su emergencia, dependiendo de la profundidad a la que están enterrados. Una sola raicilla emergente de un solo bote del rizoma produce aproximadamente 23,000 brotes en un año. La biomasa de P. repens se incrementa rápidamente a partir del dia 50 DAP con el creciente número de brotes (GISD 2005)
Livestock: It was once used for cattle in the 1920s and is resistant to grazing and trampling; however, better forages are now available that has higher quality and does not create the potential weed problems that torpedo grass did.
Wildlife: Waterfowl and songbirds regularly use torpedo grass. It is an excellent forage plant for several mammals.
Erosion Control: Torpedo grass is recommended for the use of shoreline stabilization. It may be used in
areas that have periods of both inundation as well as drought.
Conservation Practices: Torpedo grass, because of its growth habit, potentially has application when established with certain conservation practices; however, conservation practice standards vary by state. For localized information, consult your local NRCS Field Office.
Torpedograss is native to both the Old and New Worlds , with reported sources of origin including southern Europe , the Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, Israel , northern , tropical, and southern Africa [29,105], Argentina , and Australia [29,109].
Torpedograss was introduced to the Gulf Coast of the United States sometime prior to 1876, when it was first collected in Alabama . It was introduced in seed for forage crops [65,69]. Seed may also have been transported via ballast from sailing vessels carrying lumber from the Mediterranean . In the early 1900s the United States Department of Agriculture imported and distributed torpedograss seed to provide forage for cattle . By 1950, it was planted in nearly every southern Florida county and in a few central and north-central counties . It subsequently escaped cultivation .
As of this writing (2011), torpedograss occurs in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world from latitude 35 °S to 43 °N . In the United States, the distribution of torpedograss is limited to the southern Atlantic coast from North Carolina south and west to Texas, and isolated populations in California and Hawaii . It also occurs in Mexico . Plants Database provides a distributional map of torpedograss.
"Habitat and Ecology: Its grows on open, moist, sandy beaches and the shores of lakes and ponds, occasionally extending out into or onto the water. It is mostly, but not exclusively, coastal. It grows on tropical and subtropical coasts throughout the world and may have been introduced to the Americas from elsewhere (Freckmann and Lelong 2010). It is also found in bunds of rice fields, drainages and loamy sandy soils (Kabeer and Nair 2009). Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.4, 5.7, 5.8"
Immediate fire effect on plant: Managers report that torpedograss is often top-killed by fire, but belowground rhizomes usually survive (, personal communication ). Rhizome mortality may occur when heat from fire penetrates deep into the soil, soil conditions are unusually dry , or soils are shallow . As of this writing (2011), it is not known whether torpedograss seeds survive fire.