Tortricoidea, comprised of the single family Tortricidae, are second in terms of species richness only to Gelechioidea among the major microlepidopteran lineages, with just over 9,100 described species (Brown 2005). Several groups within Tortricidae have been considered distinct families by one or more authors over the last century, including Olethreutinae, Chlidanotinae, Cochylini (Phaloniidae), Sparganothini, Ceracini, and others. However, it is now generally accepted that these groups represent subordinate taxa within the family (Horak 1999). Under current concepts, the family is divided into three subfamilies - Chlidanotinae, Tortricinae, and Olethreutinae - into which 22 currently recognized tribes are arranged (Horak 1999).Many tortricids are important pests of agricultural, forest, and ornamental plants. And some, such as the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.)), are among the most well studied insects on the planet because of their considerable economic impact. The common name ??tortricideae??? has been applied to the family owing to the larval habit of shelter-building by folding or rolling leaves of the food plant, but the larvae of tortricids employ a wide range of feeding strategies, including gall-inducing, stem- and root-boring, fruit-boring, seed-predating, and flower-feeding. Some of the more unusual feeding modes include leaf litter-feeding (e.g., Epitymbiini), feeding as inquilines in the galls of other insects (e.g., Cydia and Andrioplecta), and predators of coccids (e.g., Accra, Pammene, and Andrioplecta).
Female genitalia are typical ditrysian. The papillae anales (ovipositor lobes) are slipper-shaped or oblong-ovate, characteristically flattened, usually with a moderately dense covering of sensory setae from papilose bases. In Cnepahsiini and a few Tortricini, the setae have a somewhat nail-head distal modification, used to scrap debris over the eggs - this referred to as a floricomous ovipositor. In most Tortricinae the ostium is situated immediately posterad of the 8th sternite, but in many Olethruetinae it is displaced anterad, situated on the 8th sternite. The ductus bursae is usually long and membranous, often with a scleritied antrum (cup-shaped process at ostium) or colliculum (sclerotized region in the posterior portion of the ductus). The corpus bursae is typically rounded or pear-shaped, often with spiculae or one or more signa. Virtually all Archipini have a distinctive spine and capitulum; many Olethreutinae have a blade-shaped signum, frequently paired.
Female pregenital sexual scales:
Female accessory glands:
Female oviduct opening:
Female bursa ostium opening:
on venter 8
Male pregenital sexual scales:
Sternum 5 gland:
Adult abdomen description:
The abdomen is unmodifed in the vast majority of species; the apodemes are of the "tortricoid" type. However, in a few species groups and/or genera scattered throughout the family, unusual structures may be present. For example, males of Lorita (Cochlyini) have a scoop-shaped sclerite from sternite 6; and many male Orthocomotis have an invaginated region in the pluera of segment 2-3 bearing dense sex scales that receive a hairpencil that originates from the thorax. Females of Atteriini have dense patches of modified scales called corethrogyne on the venter of segments 7-8 used to build a fence of scales around the eggs.
Scaling smooth on dorsum, with well developed tegulae. A patch of raised scales at posterior end of metascutum in many groups.
Three pairs of functional legs, usually unmodified. Foreleg bears an epiphysis. A unique male hairpencil, consisting of a dense fascicle of 15-25 elongate, pale yellow, hairlike scales, arising from the proximal end of the foreleg femur may represent a synapomorphy for Euliini and Schoenotenini, but the structure is lost secondarily in many species and genera (Brown 1990). Males of many Olethreutinae have highly modified sex scales on the hindleg.
Forewing usually with all veins present and separate beyond discal cell; frequently with some modifications and/or some stalking. Discal cell well defined; M-stem and chorda usually reduced or absent. When chorda present, it often defines a distinct cell in the disto-apical end of discal cell. CuP usually reduced. Base of 1A 2A with distinct loop. Males in many groups with conspicuous costal fold in basal potion of wing. Hindwing usually with all veins present and separate beyond discal cell, frequently with with some modifications and/or some stalking. M-stem usually absent; CuP reduced. Anal margin rolled or folded in males of some groups, often concealing a male hairpencil. Males in some groups with linear patch of sex scales along costa.
Forewing cell veins:
Forewing basal loop:
Number of Rs veins in forewing:
Forewing upper surface with microtrichia:
Number of anal veins reaching margin:
Hindwing cell vein:
Number of Rs veins in hindwing:
Number of M veins in hindwing:
present, with frenulum
Hindwing ovate with a weakly curved costa and a rounded apex. Usually with all veins present and separate beyond discal cell, frequently with with some modifications and/or stalking. Bases of Sc R and Rs coincident; Rs and M1 close, connate, or stalked; distance between bases of veins of taxonomic importance; M-stem usually absent; CuP reduced. Crossvein of discal cell extremely weak or absent. Olethreutinae typicall posses a patch of modified scales along the basal portion of vein 1A 2A referred to as a cubital pecten. The structure may be of taxonomic importace for separating Olethreutinae from Tortricinae, but there are a exceptions. In some Sparganothini (e.g. Sparganothis, Platynota) the anal region of the wing is folded and bears a hairpencil in the male. In some Olethreutini (e.g., Olethreutes) the entire anal region is rolled or folded, concealing male secondary structures and/or scales.
Three segments; first segment usually short, upcurved; second segment the longest, usually densely scaled; third segment short, usually with appresses scales, sometimes with most of segment concealed by distal scaling of second. In some groups the palpi are short, upcurved, and nearly appressed to the face. In other groups they are long and porrect, 4-5 times the horizontal diameter of the compound eye.
Fluted sensilla styloconia on proboscis:
Usually well developed, coiled, ca. 1 X 1.5 times length of labial palpus; unscaled basally; rarely non-functional.
Head vertex scaling:
Female pedicel description:
Female scape description:
Female flagellomere description:
Male pedicel description:
Male flagellomere description:
Simple, unmodified; frequently with setae longer and more densely arranged in male than in female antenna.
Antennal sensillum present
General antennae description:
Unmodified, comprised of scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Olethreutinae with a single row of scales per flagellomere, Tortricinae and Chlidanotinae with 2 rows. Overall, flagellum filaform or slightly serrate. Antennae slightly broadened and flattened in most Chlidanotini. In Tortricinae, males typically with longer setae than females.
Adult head description:
Vertex rough scaled; frons smooth scaled; an ocellus and small patch of chaetosemata near base of antenna.
For most species, pupation takes place in the rolled leaf, stem, root, etc. in which the larva has fed.
Description of egg life history:
Eggs are deposited singly, in small groups, or in large imbricate masses. In Sparganopthini and Atteriini the eggs are covered with a collaterial solution of varying color. Females of Atteriini use highly modified scales on the venter of the abdominal segment to build a fence of scales around the egg patch. Eggs usually hatch in 7-12 days.
Bladrollers zijn vrij kleine vlindertjes met min of meer rechthoekige voorvleugels. De meeste soorten vermommen zich als een blaadje als ze stil zitten. Dat doen ze door hun vleugels als een dakje over zich heen te houden. De rups leeft gewoonlijk tussen samengevouwen of opgerolde bladeren. Daar hebben deze vlindertjes hun naam aan te danken. Verschillende soorten bladrollers hebben kwelder- of duinplanten als waardplant.