Foreleg in males usually reduced with the tarsal segments typically fused and the pretarsus reduced but in females normally developed. The forelegs are used for walking in most species. Tibial spurs may be entirely absent 0-0-2 or 0-1-1
The humeral vein is present or absent in the hindwing (Scoble 1992; Eliot 1973; Munroe, 1982). Vein CuP is usually absent from both wings.
Wing coupling description:
From Scoble 1992: "There is no frenular-retinacular system in true butterflies, wing coupling is said to be effected by an amplexiform system made possible by the expanded humeral area. The forewing-metathoracic locking-device is absent.
From Scoble 1992: "At least some stalking of the radial veins of the forewing occurs."
The higher classification of Lycaenidae is currently in flux. The subfamilies, tribes and subtribes enumerated within this clade are for the most part the groups listed by Eliot (1973, 1992 [in Corbet et al.]). Note that the higher classifications presented by Eliot in 1973 and 1992 differ from one another in that the 1992 version reduced the three diverse subfamilies Lycaeninae, Polyommatinae and Theclinae to tribes within an inclusive "Lycaeninae," in order to reflect their affinity to one another with respect to Curetinae, Poritiinae and Miletinae. That change has not been generally adopted by the lycaenid research community (R. K. Robbins, pers. comm, 4/08), and has not been incorporated here. Note also that Eliot's classification was intuitive, and the monophyly and implied relationships among these groups should therefore be viewed as tentative, pending revelations from the large amount of molecular evidence that is currently being gathered by Naomi Pierce and colleagues. The relationships shown among the four subfamilies are those inferred by Wahlberg et al. (2005).
Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats Specimen Records:20140 Specimens with Sequences:17940 Specimens with Barcodes:16942 Species:2722 Species With Barcodes:2450 Public Records:5457 Public Species:1169 Public BINs:728
Antennal base adjacent to margin of compound eye, and usually indenting it. Reduction of the metathoracic wing case of the pupa. Spatulate lobe on larval abdominal prolegs which interrupts the mesoseries of crochets. Absence of larval eversible prothoracic gland