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More info for the terms: adventitious, cover, presence
Field bindweed is native to Europe and Asia. Field bindweed is successful in many types of climates, including temperate, tropical, and mediterranean, but is most troublesome for agriculture throughout the temperate zone, from 60Â°N to 45Â°S latitude. Fifty-four countries report field bindweed as a weed in 32 different crops .
Field bindweed most likely arrived in the U.S. as contaminant in farm and garden seeds. Some plants were introduced intentionally and planted ornamentally as ground cover or in hanging baskets. It was first noted in Virginia in 1739 and was found all along the eastern seaboard, from Virginia to Maine, by the early 1800s. Western migration of field bindweed may have been hastened by the building of railroads; however, field bindweed seeds continued to arrive whenever immigrants settled new areas or whenever crop seed was imported. A "bindweed plague" in the Great Plains in 1877 was attributed to Ukrainian settlers who inadvertently brought the weed seed in wheat (Triticum spp.) seed during the early 1870s. Field bindweed reputedly established in the Pacific Northwest when an Oregon settler used it as a cover crop in his orchard. Field bindweed was evidently present in California as early as 1838. By the end of the 1st quarter of the 20th century, field bindweed was considered the "worst weed" in several states and a "serious pest" in several others, especially west of the Mississippi ( and references therein).
The current North American distribution of field bindweed extends from the agricultural regions of all provinces in Canada (except Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island) southward throughout the United States and into northern Mexico. It is common to abundant in the U.S., except in the extreme Southeast and parts of southern Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona ( and references therein). Field bindweed is adventitious in Hawaii . Plants database provides a state distribution map of field bindweed. Field bindweed is especially common in cultivated fields and gardens [30,37,50,54,58,60,64,72,81,88,106,110,141,146,149], along roadsides [30,37,50,54,72,81,110,127,141,146,149], railroads [141,146], "disturbed sites" [37,96,151,153], and "waste places" [50,106,127,141,146]. It is reported from ballast heaps in Nova Scotia .
A survey of weed specialists and herbaria in the continental U.S., conducted in 1994 and 1995, found that field bindweed occurs at "serious" densities (> 1,000 acres/county) in 957 counties, "moderate" densities (250-1000 acres/county) in 845 counties; and "low" densities (< 250 acres/county) in 573 counties, in 47 of the 48 contiguous states. Only Florida and the southern parts of states from South Carolina to Texas did not report its presence. The authors also report that field bindweed infestations have increased in several western states since 1970, but have decreased in importance in most Great Plains states .
The following lists suggest ecosystems and vegetation types in which field bindweed may be invasive, especially following disturbance. It is unclear from the literature which vegetation types may be susceptible to invasion by field bindweed in the absence of disturbance. These lists were derived from known or perceived ecological tolerances of field bindweed, are largely speculative, and may not be exhaustive.
Field Bindweed is a common plant that has been reported from most counties in Illinois (see Distribution Map); it is native to Eurasia. This plant continues to spread and probably occurs in every county of the state. Habitats include lawns, gardens, fields, clay banks, areas along roadsides and railroads (including ballast), vacant lots, and miscellaneous waste areas. This plant occurs primarily in disturbed areas.
|Rights holder/Author||Copyright © 2002-2014 by Dr. John Hilty|
More info for the terms: geophyte, ground residual colonizer, initial off-site colonizer, rhizome, secondary colonizer
POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY :
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
Field Bindweed prefers full sunlight and mesic to dry conditions. It has considerable drought tolerance, and flourishes in poor soil that contains sand, gravel, or hardpan clay. It will also grow in moist fertile soil, but dislikes competition from taller plants. Eradication of this plant is difficult, as mechanical cultivation often spreads the rhizomes around, producing new plants. Because of the deep root system, it has been known to survive bulldozer operations. It can also persist in lawns, notwithstanding regular lawn-mowing. The application of broadleaf herbicides can be an effective control measure, if it is repeated as needed.
|Rights holder/Author||Copyright © 2002-2014 by Dr. John Hilty|
(key to state/province abbreviations)
Comments: Convolvulus arvensis is distributed throughout the world from latitude 60 degrees N to 45 degrees S and is found in temperate, tropical, and Mediterranean climates (Holm et al. 1977). It is found in dry to moderately moist soils and can survive long periods of drought. It grows best on fertile soils but persists on poor, rocky soils as well. It is a troublesome weed in cultivated fields, pastures, gardens, roadsides, and various native plant communities. It is found in large patches rather than as isolated plants and grows best in open communities in association with annual, biennial, and short-lived weeds (Weaver and Riley 1982).
More info for the terms: cover, fire regime, fire suppression, forbs, invasive species, litter, natural, nonnative species, shrub
Fire adaptations: There is no information available in the literature regarding fire adaptations of field bindweed. Some inferences can be made regarding the likely response of field bindweed to fire based on its reproductive strategies. Field bindweed has a deep and extensive root system with abundant food reserves and can sprout repeatedly following removal of aboveground growth [74,75].
Goodwin and others  present the following generalization about rhizomatous weeds and fire, although they provide no supporting evidence. "Growth of rhizomatous weeds is especially enhanced through the survival of underground reproductive structures that have access to large energy reserves. When above-ground weed growth is removed, such as by fire, vegetative shoot production is strongly stimulated, directly producing great numbers of individual weeds. Because of the established root reserves, these shoots are immediately aggressive and highly competitive.
Field bindweed also produces varying amounts of long-lived, durable seed that survives passing through the digestive tracts of various animals [57,104,111], and long periods of composting and ensilage [148,156] (see Discussion and Qualification of Fire Effect). Considering its survival under such conditions, one might predict that field bindweed seed would survive low- to moderate-severity fires; however, more information is needed.
FIRE REGIMES: There is no information on FIRE REGIMES in areas where field bindweed is native or on the effects of FIRE REGIMES on field bindweed in areas where it is invasive. The response of field bindweed to native and imposed FIRE REGIMES probably varies among geographic locations, plant community types, fire adaptations of native species, and other disturbance and management regimes imposed at a particular site. More information on the effects of native and imposed FIRE REGIMES on the establishment, persistence, and spread of field bindweed are needed.
Frequent fire may deter field bindweed and other nonnative invasive species in temperate grasslands. According to Knapp and Seastedt , fire and grazing are necessary, integral ecosystem processes that maintain productivity of tallgrass prairie by removing standing and fallen litter. Similarly, Leach and Givnish  recommend prescribed burning (with specific guidelines) in Wisconsin prairie remnants to maintain native plant diversity. A review by Grace and others  suggests fire is only 1 type of disturbance that may affect the establishment and spread of invasive species in temperate grasslands. Since fire return intervals have been and will continue to be heavily influenced by land use, fire suppression, and grazing, these other disturbances can be expected to continue to play important roles in the future.
A 15-year study in C4-dominated grasslands (dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) and supporting many nonnative species, including field bindweed) in Konza Prairie Research Natural Area in eastern Kansas, indicated that patterns of disturbance (i.e. grazing and fire) strongly affected nonnative plant cover and richness. In particular, long-term annually burned sites had low cover and few, if any, nonnative species, whereas richness and cover of exotic species was as much as 5 times higher in long-term unburned sites. Although the effects of grazing could not be tested directly, higher nonnative species richness was associated with both annually burned and unburned grazing treatments. The authors suggest in their review that annual burning increases the dominance (i.e. production and abundance) of C4 grasses and decreases production and abundance of the subdominant grasses and C3 forbs in this grassland, and may indirectly prevent establishment of nonnative species .
The following table provides fire return intervals for important plant communities and ecosystems in which field bindweed may occur. If you are interested in the fire regime of a plant community that is not listed here, please consult the complete FEIS fire regime table.
|Community or Ecosystem||Dominant Species||Fire Return Interval Range (years)|
|maple-beech-birch||Acer-Fagus-Betula||> 1,000 |
|bluestem prairie||Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium||79,101]|
|Nebraska sandhills prairie||Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium||< 10|
|bluestem-Sacahuista prairie||Andropogon littoralis-Spartina spartinae||< 10|
|sagebrush steppe||Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata||20-70 |
|basin big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata||12-43 |
|mountain big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana||15-40 [4,25,94]|
|Wyoming big sagebrush||Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis||10-70 (40**) [140,154]|
|desert grasslands||Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica||5-100 |
|plains grasslands||Bouteloua spp.||101,152]|
|blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass||Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii||101,112,152]*|
|blue grama-buffalo grass||Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides||101,152]*|
|grama-galleta steppe||Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii||< 35 to < 100|
|blue grama-tobosa prairie||Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis mutica||101]|
|California montane chaparral||Ceanothus and/or Arctostaphylos spp.||50-100 |
|sugarberry-America elm-green ash||Celtis laevigata-Ulmus americana-Fraxinus pennsylvanica||143]|
|curlleaf mountain-mahogany*||Cercocarpus ledifolius||13-1,000 [5,114]|
|mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub||Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii||101]|
|California steppe||Festuca-Danthonia spp.||101,126]|
|juniper-oak savanna||Juniperus ashei-Quercus virginiana||< 35|
|Ashe juniper||Juniperus ashei||< 35|
|western juniper||Juniperus occidentalis||20-70|
|Rocky Mountain juniper||Juniperus scopulorum||< 35|
|cedar glades||Juniperus virginiana||3-7|
|Ceniza shrub||Larrea tridentata-Leucophyllum frutescens-Prosopis glandulosa||101]|
|wheatgrass plains grasslands||Pascopyrum smithii||101,105,152]|
|Colorado pinyon||Pinus edulis||10-400+ [44,52,73,101]|
|Jeffrey pine||Pinus jeffreyi||5-30|
|Pacific ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa||1-47 |
|interior ponderosa pine*||Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum||2-30 [3,7,83]|
|Arizona pine||Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica||2-15 [7,29,115]|
|galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe||Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea||< 35 to < 100|
|eastern cottonwood||Populus deltoides||101]|
|aspen-birch||Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera||35-200 [39,143]|
|quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains)||Populus tremuloides||7-120 [3,56,92]|
|mountain grasslands||Pseudoroegneria spicata||3-40 (10**) [2,3]|
|California oakwoods||Quercus spp.||3]|
|oak-juniper woodland (Southwest)||Quercus-Juniperus spp.||101]|
|northeastern oak-pine||Quercus-Pinus spp.||10 to < 35 |
|coast live oak||Quercus agrifolia||2-75 |
|white oak-black oak-northern red oak||Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra||143]|
|canyon live oak||Quercus chrysolepis||<35 to 200|
|blue oak-foothills pine||Quercus douglasii-P. sabiniana||<35|
|Oregon white oak||Quercus garryana||3]|
|California black oak||Quercus kelloggii||5-30 |
|bur oak||Quercus macrocarpa||143]|
|oak savanna||Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium||2-14 [101,143]|
|black oak||Quercus velutina||143]|
|little bluestem-grama prairie||Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp.||101]|
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary
Comments: Convolvulus arvensis is one of the world's worst agricultural weeds and reduces yields in a large variety of crops. It has a large negative economic impact on agriculture and results in annual crop losses of over $25 million in California alone (Rosenthal 1983).
More info on this topic.
This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS :
1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains
3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
More info for the terms: frequency, natural, nonnative species
Field bindweed is primarily an agricultural weed, and occurs in cultivated fields and other disturbed sites such as pastures, gardens, lawns, and along roadsides and railways. Natural area managers are most likely to find it in moist locations (e.g. riparian corridors and irrigated areas) on tracts once used for agriculture .
Field bindweed was among several nonnative plant species identified in a tallgrass prairie study in Kansas, where nonnative species were most common at the town site and along human and livestock travel corridors. A gradient was observed with a high abundance of nonnative species in town to low abundance in prairie sites, with the distribution of native plants forming a reverse gradient. Sources of nonnative plant introduction were related to early cattle trails through the community, railroad and stockyard locations, gardens, cultivated fields, livestock and wildlife activity. Nonnative plants occurred on truck trails into the upland prairie but had not yet invaded the surrounding grassland . On study sites on open annual grassland and blue oak savannah in California, field bindweed was found on both serpentine and nonserpentine soil types. It was most frequent near roads on nonserpentine soils and its frequency of occurrence decreased with increasing distance from the road. This pattern was not observed on serpentine soils .
Field bindweed is found in dry or moderately moist soils and can survive long periods of drought due to its extensive root system. It grows best on rich, fertile soils but persists on poor, gravelly soils as well . In Quebec, field bindweed is found primarily on sandy soils in warm, dry areas (Rousseau 1968 as cited by ). In northern California and the Great Plains, field bindweed persists into autumn under severely dry conditions when most other plants are unable to sustain growth. Strong sunlight and moderate-to-low moisture appear to be optimal conditions for field bindweed growth and reproduction [22,78].
Field bindweed appears to be somewhat cold tolerant. Plants extracted from frozen ground in Michigan had roots that appeared to be severely injured or dead in the uppermost layers of soil. However, a laboratory test indicated that about 30% of field bindweed roots survived 21 Â°F (-6 Â°C) for 8 hours, but were unable to survive 18 Â°F (-8 Â°C) for any time period tested .
Elevation range: Field bindweed has reportedly been found in the Himalayas at altitudes of 10,000 feet (3,000 m) ( and references therein). Field bindweed is found in several plant communities in riparian corridors in Wyoming, at 7,000 to 7,500 feet (2,100-2,300 m). Elevation ranges are given by area as follows:
|CA||generally < 5,000 feet (1,500 m)||[60,99]|
|CO||4,000 to 8,000 feet (1,200-2,400 m)|||
|NV||2,200 to 6,500 feet (700-2,000 m)|||
|NM||4,000 to 8,000 feet (1,200-2,400 m)|||
|UT||3,100 to 9,200 feet (930-2,800 m)|||
|Intermountain||usually below 6,600 feet (2,000 m)|||