Barbed goatgrass was introduced to North America in the 20th century from Mediterranean Europe and Western Asia. Barbed goatgrass has been found in California, Oregon, Nevada, and the New England area, but the grass has most heavily impacted California. Barbed goatgrass was introduced to the California area with the trade of Mexican cattle in the early 20th century. Barbed goatgrass is a fast-growing, rapidly spreading invasive species mainly in grasslands, pastures, and ranches. It is listed as a noxious weed by California Department of Food and Agriculture. Because of its fast, invasive growing patterns, barbed goatgrass creates a monoculture, killing the other plants in its area. The invasive nature of barbed goatgrass is causing a decrease in species diversity, and a decrease in forage. Most grazing animals tend to avoid barbed goatgrass because they do not like the taste of it, allowing the grass to take over the other grasses and grains consumed by the animals. The barbs on the grass containing the seeds become attached easily to animal fur, human clothing, and vehicles; this movement allows the seeds to become more widely dispersed over the area.
The most important component in the control of barbed goatgrass is early detection. When found in small isolated areas, it can be more effectively taken care of. Controlled burning is one method being used by the University of California in small areas to try and control the amount of barbed goatgrass. To be most effective, multiple burns had to be put in place in the isolated area over two years to more fully rid the area of the grass. After the burns, many native species were able to live in the small area once again.
Another method being used by both University of California and the Weed Science Society of America to control barbed goatgrass is the spraying of a chemical, glyphosate. Used over a two year period in small areas, glyphosate was able kill barbed goatgrass and all its seedlings.  Although the chemical is effective in killing barbed goatgrass, it also kills the other plants in the area.Aminocyclopyrachlor, a new experimental chemical is also being used to control barbed goatgrass by University of California's Weed Science department. It has shown to be extremely effective, but aminocyclopyrachlor is not a registered herbicide, so widespread use is not allowed yet.
Mowing of the grass is another method used to control. It allows the grass to be cut before maturing and developing seeds to reproduce, but it is not as effective as the other methods because the deep and established root system of the barbed goatgrass is still in place and can grow again.
Although there are many ways to control the growth of barbed goatgrass, a real solution has not been found in its widespread prevention. Barbed goatgrass cross breeds with different types of wheat, causing the grain to become infertile and unusable for harvest, which hurts the economy of the rural California areas. It can also seriously harm grazing animals by the barbs becoming embedded in their nose, mouth, and eyes, causing farmers and ranchers extra expenses. It reduces the amount of forage in the area, decreases biodiversity and overall degrades the ecosystem it resides in. Studies of the University of California also show that if climate change increased the amount of precipitation in the area, the amount of barbed goatgrass may increase, destroying even more of its ecosystem. Its rapid growth and resiliency against control methods prove that barbed goatgrass is an invasive species that could cause many more problems to the agriculture of California and possibly many other areas if it is not taken care of soon.
Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades very narrow or filiform, less than 2 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simp le spikes, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence spikelets arranged in a terminal bilateral spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets distichously arranged, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Inflorescence disarticulating between nodes or joints of rachis, rachis fragmenting, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Spikelets closely appressed or embedded in concave portions of axis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Glumes 2-5 toothed, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 3 awns, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
Culms tufted, 15-45 cm high, erect or geniculately ascending. Leaf-blades hairy or glabrous, up to 10 cm long, 1-2 mm wide. Spikes 3-6 cm long (excluding the awns), tapering towards the tip, with 1-2 vestigial spikelets at the base; rhachis sometimes breaking up at maturity. Fertile spikelets (3-)4-6, without any reduced spikelets above: glumes of lowest spikelet 7-10 mm long, usually with 3 teeth, 2-3 of which form awns; awns of terminal spikelet 3-6 cm long, distinctly longer than those of the lateral spikelets.
Isotype for Aegilops persica Boiss. Catalog Number: US 1127074 Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined Preparation: Pressed specimen Collector(s): K. G. Kotschy Locality: Montis Sabst-Buschom, Schiraz., Iran, Asia-Temperate
Isotype: Boissier, P. E. 1846. Diagn. Pl. Orient. 1 (7): 129.
Isotype for Aegilops persica Boiss. Catalog Number: US 2305559 Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined Preparation: Pressed specimen Collector(s): K. G. Kotschy Locality: Montis Sabst-Buschom, Schiraz., Iran, Asia-Temperate
Isotype: Boissier, P. E. 1846. Diagn. Pl. Orient. 1 (7): 129.