Key Questions: Pathways - All

Alligator Weed Control Manual

This manual presents best practice advice for the eradication and suppression of alligator weed in Australia. This advice is based on a review of over 30 years of published information and past and current field practices. To develop the best practice information presented here a technical reference group made up of researchers, managers and technical specialists reviewed the current knowledge and information over a series of workshops. Case studies provide examples of management strategies and control techniques.

An Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada

This Strategy seeks to establish a framework to address invasive alien species by meeting four strategic challenges, including: • Integrating environmental considerations into decision-making with economic and social factors; • Enhancing co-ordination and co-operation to respond more rapidly to new invasions and pathways of invasion; • Strengthening programs to protect natural resources under pressure from increased global trade and travel; and • Maximizing collaboration between adhoc and regional/issue specific efforts to ensure the limited resources are used on highest priority issues It includes a glossary and discussion on important pathways

CABI Invasive Species Compendium

The ISC is a constantly developing encyclopaedic resource containing: Datasheets on over 1500 invasive species and animal diseases; Basic datasheets on further species, countries, habitats and pathways; Bibliographic database of over 75,000 records; Full text documents. The datasheets comprise fully referenced sections on taxonomy and nomenclature, distribution, habitat, identification, biology and ecology, species associations, pathways for introduction, impacts and management, complemented by images and maps, and supported by abstracts and full text articles.

Canadian Action Plan to Address the Threat of Aquatic Invasive Species

The ultimate goal of this plan is to minimize (and ideally eliminate) the introduction of harmful AIS and remediate the impact of those already in Canada. The plan’s underlying principles include incorporating environmental, economic, and social factors in decision making; working cooperatively with all stakeholders; and using science-based techniques to assess the risk of aquatic invasive species. Prevention of harmful new invasions is the first priority, as it is the most cost-effective way to deal with the problem. Once species are established, the task becomes far more complex and costly. The tools used to manage AIS must be carefully analyzed in terms of their effectiveness, how they affect the rest of the ecosystem, their cost, and so on. While some of the tools used to prevent and control harmful introductions vary between pathways, most of them apply across pathways, between jurisdictions, and to a range of species and ecosystems. In this plan, management actions have been organized into four broad categories: legislation, regulation and compliance; risk management; engaging Canadians; and science.

CBD - Guiding Principles for the Prevention, Introduction and Mitigation of Impacts of Alien Species that Threaten Ecosystems, Habitats or Species

Convention on Biological Diversity. Guiding Principles for the Prevention, Introduction and Mitigation of Impacts of Alien Species that Threaten Ecosystems, Habitats or Species The Guiding Principles are intended to assist governments to control invasive alien species, as an integral part of conservation and economic development. They comprise 15 principles on prevention, intentional and unintentional introduction, and mitigation of impacts.

The document is also available in Arabic, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and German

Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)

To help those tackling the invasive species challenge, The DAISIE website provides a 'one-stop-shop' for information on biological invasions in Europe. Particularly European (but with some global coverage), the search system allowing searches on a variety of aspects of IAS (Conservation/restoration, Ecology / biology, Economy / impact, genetics, legislation / administration, management, pathways, physiology, risk assessment, taxonomy) and restriction to country, taxon or aquatic or terrestrial area.

EPPO - PQR Database

PQR is the EPPO database on quarantine pests. As decided by the EPPO Executive Committee in April 2007, it can be downloaded free of charge from this web page. For each pest, it is possible to obtain lists of host plants, commodities able to act as pathways in international trade, details of geographical distribution with maps, and pictures. Conversely, it is also possible to interrogate the database to obtain specific lists of pests, by stipulating the host species, the commodity, and the countries of interest. PQR contains general nomenclatural and taxonomic details on pests and hosts.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) 2013. EPPO activities on Invasive Alien Plants

The site provides lists of invasive and potentially invasive alien species, risk and pathway analyses, management standards, links to relevant resources, and other information services (database, bulletin, reporting service etc.) Wild plants can be threatened by the introduction and spread of pests, and notably by 'invasive alien plants' which can seriously disturb and destroy natural plant communities. Therefore in the early 2000s, EPPO started to work more specifically on invasive alien plants, in particular to analyze the risks presented by specific invasive alien plant species for the EPPO region and recommend measures to prevent their introduction and spread via international trade."

Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. (McNeely, J.A., Mooney, H.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P. & Waage, J.K. (eds.) 2001. IUCN on behalf of the Global Invasive Species Programme, Gland, Switzerland) and Cambridge, UK

This document details a global strategy on invasive alien species. It covers the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of invasive alien species, their pathways, dispersal and movement, as well as management, policy information and strategic responses. Included are case studies, a list of relevant organisations and institutions, as well as a glossary. The Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species is based on contributions from the team leaders of the eleven main components addressed under Phase I of the Global Invasive Species Programme. This strategy summarizes key findings of the Phase I Synthesis Conference held September 2000 in Cape Town, Republic of South Africa and presents ten strategic responses that address mitigating the threats of invasive alien species. Directed toward the decision-makers whose policies and practices are affecting the movement of species around the world, this Strategy strives to provide a resource to increase awareness and provide policy advice.

IABIN Invasives Information Network (I3N)

I3N integrates information from countries throughout the Americas to support the detection and management of invasive alien species. I3N provides capacity building and an array of electronic tools for information management and increased access to information. Pages within the site include risk assessment tools and a vector pathway analysis tool.


A web-enabled tool to create Simulations for Predicting Colonization of Aquatic Invasive Species.

"Predicting and averting the spread of invasive species is a core focus of resource managers in all ecosystems. Patterns of invasion are difficult to forecast, compounded by a lack of user-friendly species distribution model (SDM) tools to help managers focus control efforts. This paper presents a web-based cellular automata hybrid modeling tool developed to study the invasion pattern of lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) in the western Atlantic and is a natural extension our previous lionfish study. Our goal is to make publically available this hybrid SDM tool and demonstrate both a test case (P. volitans/miles) and a use case (Caulerpa taxifolia). The software derived from the model, titled Invasionsoft, is unique in its ability to examine multiple default or user-defined parameters, their relation to invasion patterns, and is presented in a rich web browser-based GUI with integrated results viewer. The beta version is not species-specific and includes a default parameter set that is tailored to the marine habitat. Invasionsoft is provided as copyright protected freeware at!

Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Tool

One of the most important types of information in the practical approach to prevention and management of biological invasions is the identity of the pathways of introduction and details of the vectors. These are necessary for the prevention of introduction of potentially invasive species and also for the containment of further spread of established invasions. The Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource aims to provide information on the identity and the management of these pathways.

Linkages between Development Assistance and Invasive Alien Species in Freshwater Systems in South East Asia. Gutierrez, A.T. & Reaser, J.K. 2005 USAID Asia and Near East Bureau, Washington, DC.

Recognizing the significant impacts that IAS have on the environment, economy, and human health, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in cooperation with the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), sponsored a preliminary assessment to investigate the linkages between IAS and development assistance in the freshwater systems of Southeast Asia. This report details the findings of the assessment, which focused on three areas – (1) development assistance as pathway of introduction, (2) development assistance projects adversely impacted by IAS, and (3) development assistance projects working to address IAS.

Marine Biofouling & Invasive Species: guidelines for prevention and management

This document contains information on marine biofouling as a pathway for the spread of invasive species. The ecological and economic impacts of invasive marine species are included, along with case studies. The document also provides information on management practices, regulatory framework and legislation and recommendations.

Marine Biofouling: An Assessment of the Risks and Management Initiatives. Compiled by Lynn Jackson on behalf of the Global Invasive Species Programme and the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), 2008. 68pp

The escalating numbers of invasive species in the marine environment, together with an increasing awareness of the implications thereof, have stimulated a substantial amount of research aimed both at gaining a better understanding of marine invasions and at finding ways to prevent and/or manage them. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of those initiatives dealing with biofouling as a pathway for marine invasions.

National African Boxthorn Strategic Plan

Weeds of National Significance are declared based on their invasiveness, impacts, potential for spread and significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. African boxthorn ticks all these boxes, and in 2012 was declared a Weed of National Significance. This Strategic Plan provides guidance for the first five years of implementing a nationally coordinated approached to managing African boxthorn.

National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions

The database provides detailed information on non-native marine pest plant and animal species in Australian waters. Species datasheets contain comprehensive information on taxonomic classification, morphology, ecology and physiology,vectors, pathways of introduction and impacts on natural systems, as well as a list of references and articles with additional information pertaining to that particular species. NIMPIS is a central repository of information on the biology, ecology and distribution (international and national) of invasive marine pest species. It includes known species that have been introduced to Australian waters and species that are considered to pose a potential of future introduction.

Neighborhood watch : early detection and rapid response to biological invasion along US trade pathways

This report offers recommendations to improve biosecurity measures at US ports, as well as a possible funding mechanism based upon the polluter-pays principle.

The Aid Trade - International Assistance Programs as Pathways for the Introduction of Invasive Alien Species. Murphy, S.T. & Cheesman, O.D. 2006. Paper No. 109, Environment Department Papers, The World Bank.

This discussion paper is sponsored by the World Bank and CABI, both institutions concerned with delivering development assistance. It was produced to raise awareness about the costs and problems associated with IAS and as a contribution towards promoting more environmentally sustainable development.

Trade and invasive species in the Caribbean : a universe of risk

This report represents the preliminary steps in the triage and identification of pathways of high risk in the Caribbean. Its objective is to suggest priority areas for international cooperation in the management of risk from invasive species introductions via trade-related pathways in the Caribbean.

Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species Test Cases for the Snakeheads (Channidae) and Armored Catfi shes ( Loricariidae) in North American Inland Waters. Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 2009.

This report covers guidelines in risk assessments and socioeconomic impacts and analyses of invasive aquatic species in Canada, Mexico and the United States. There are several case studies of armoured catfish included in the document. Also available in the appendices are: an organism risk assessment form, an inferential estimation of organism risk and pathway risk, and a glossary of relevant terms and definitions.

Using Temporal Sampling to Improve Attribution of Source Populations for Invasive Species. Goldstien SJ, Inglis GJ, Schiel DR, Gemmell NJ (2013) PLoS ONE 8(6): e65656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065656

Case study using applied genetic tools to the identification of source populations and transport pathways for invasive species in New Zealand.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith